Kamil O. Kuraszkiewicz,
Non-textual Marking on a Construction Site
Kamil O. Kuraszkiewicz,
Marks on the Faience Tiles from the “Blue Chambers” of Netjerykhet’s Funerary Complex
Two sets of rooms hewn in the bedrock under the Step Pyramid complex were decorated with blue faience tiles, a significant number of which has been found detached from the walls (also outside the complex). Among the detached tiles, numerous are marked on the reverse side. The purpose and meaning of the markings, which were invisible in the final form of the decoration, is discussed in the present paper.
Dawid F. Wieczorek,
Building Dipinti in the Hatshepsut and Thutmose III Temples at Deir el-Bahari: Summarising four seasons of work (2006, 2008, 2009, 2011)
This paper deals with two corpora of building dipinti on limestone and sandstone blocks examined at Deir el-Bahari in the two Thutmoside temples of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III. Two groups of dipinti are strictly connected with the construction process of these temples. The two groups of building dipinti presented here are the result of four seasons of work on the site. Taken together, the epigraphic material recorded so far seems to constitute a cohesive repertoire of Thutmoside building dipinti.
Myriam Seco Álvarez & Agustín Gamarra Campuzano,
Thutmosis III Temple of Millions of Years and the Mud Brick Marks: Conservation and first conclusions
This article characterizes the preliminary results of the investigations and restorations of the large amount of mud bricks that are used in various structures at the temple of Millions of Years of Thutmosis III. The architectural use of mud bricks is clear in many parts of the temple such as: the pylon, the enclosure walls, the adjacent buildings to the interior and exterior of the enclosure walls, as well as the ramps and some floors. This article shows the different techniques used in construction, and how our interventions mainly consisted of protection to display the structures in the future. Due to the good state of preservation of the mud bricks on the site, we discovered a large amount of mud bricks marks, which we present as well in our study.
Athena Van der Perre,
Quarry Marks of the Amarna Period: The limestone quarries of Dayr Abū Hinnis
The Dayr al-Barshā Project (KU Leuven, Belgium) revealed that the quarry area of Amarna is noticeably larger than was expected. One of the largest quarry sites of the Amarna period is located at Dayr Abū Ḥinnis, c. 15km north of Amarna. The main exploitation phase can be dated in the Amarna Period, while quarrying continued on a smaller scale in the Ramesside Period, Late Period and Roman/Early Christian period. The most remarkable item of these quarries, apart from their size and number, is the large collection of markings and inscriptions on the ceilings. The majority of the inscriptions is connected to the quarrying process. However, marking the work progress on the ceiling of an exploited quarry seems to be restricted to the Amarna Period, with a revival in the Late Period. Among the inscriptions, a number of quarry marks can be found. The quarry marks resemble the known mason’s marks a nd pot marks of the Amarna Period, but in t he q uarries, they a re often combined with painted ochre lines and (hieratic) dates, confirming a close connection with the work progress.
Non-textual Marking Systems at Gebel el-Silsila: From dynastic signifiers of identity to symbols of adoration
In Gebel el-Silsila the quarry faces are cluttered with literally thousands of pictographic and textual representations; together they provide us with a window of information to the ancients’ activity in the area, a prosopography of its workers and an idea of the ancients’ contemporary ideology. The more complex category of illustrations is quarry marks, a form of graffiti that appears in abundance with some 5000 examples, dating from the Eighteenth Dynasty to the early Roman Period. Engraved into the surface, the marks are all executed technically in the same way, carefully carved with a metal chisel. They are located as singulars or in linear series in all the cardinal directions and all over the full heights of the quarry faces, measuring between c. 10cm up to sometimes 1.5m in height. Their designs are individually comparable with contemporary script systems, concrete objects, abstract geometrical patterns, and so forth, and as such they fall into the category of non-textual marking systems. They are often considered as signifiers of identity, with the referent assumed to be an owner, contractor, a single workman or a group. Other practical considerations of use include marks for transportation, positioning, height and depth, et cetera, but the aim is here to explore also alternative meanings and discuss a possible chronological progression from marks that originally signified work or workmen to more complex religious expressions. Terminological options will be considered too. As a work still in progress, this paper is a summary of results achieved thus far.